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發電機組主要部件和工作原理介紹

發布來源:山東龍佩機電設備有限公司  發布日期: 2023-09-06  訪問量:518

發電機組主要部件和工作原理(li)介(jie)紹

柴(chai)油機是(shi)柴(chai)油發(fa)電機組(zu)的動力(li)部分(fen),是(shi)內燃機的一(yi)種類型,它是(shi)將柴(chai)油噴射到汽缸(gang)內與(yu)空(kong)氣混合,經壓縮燃燒(shao)釋放(fang)出能量轉(zhuan)變為機械能的熱力(li)發(fa)動機。一(yi)般(ban)由機體(ti)組(zu)、曲軸連桿機構、配(pei)氣機構進、燃油系(xi)統、進排氣系(xi)統、潤滑系(xi)統、冷(leng)卻系(xi)統、啟動系(xi)統和電氣系(xi)統組(zu)成。

發電機組系統介紹

空氣(qi)(qi)系(xi)統。作(zuo)用:盡可能多地向發動機提供清(qing)潔的空氣(qi)(qi),同時(shi)排出廢氣(qi)(qi)時(shi)背壓較(jiao)小。組成:空氣(qi)(qi)濾清(qing)器、進(jin)氣(qi)(qi)阻力(li)指(zhi)示器、增(zeng)壓器、中冷器、缸(gang)蓋(gai)氣(qi)(qi)道,排氣(qi)(qi)歧(qi)管、消(xiao)聲器和排氣(qi)(qi)管。

燃油系統

潤(run)滑(hua)系統(tong),作用:潤(run)滑(hua)、散熱、密(mi)封、清洗。組成:油(you)(you)底殼(ke)、機油(you)(you)泵、機油(you)(you)冷卻(que)器、冷卻(que)噴(pen)嘴(zui)、機油(you)(you)管(guan)道、調壓閥(fa)、機油(you)(you)濾清器等。

冷(leng)卻系統:作用:在柴油(you)機(ji)工(gong)作時(shi),用來散(san)(san)失(shi)發動(dong)機(ji)多余(yu)的熱(re)(re)量,保證發動(dong)機(ji)在一個適當的溫度范(fan)圍內正常(chang)工(gong)作組(zu)成:散(san)(san)熱(re)(re)器(水(shui)箱)、風扇(shan)、水(shui)泵(beng)、節溫器、中冷(leng)器,機(ji)油(you)冷(leng)卻器、水(shui)濾器和進(jin)出(chu)水(shui)管等零部件。

電(dian)器系統(tong):柴油(you)(you)機電(dian)器系統(tong)一般為24V系統(tong),柴油(you)(you)機裝有(you)交流發電(dian)機、 起動電(dian)機、傳感(gan)器,調整器,電(dian)池,控制器等。

發(fa)電(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)(ji)調(diao)速(su)(su)(su)系(xi)統(tong)(tong),常見的(de)發(fa)動機(ji)(ji)調(diao)速(su)(su)(su)系(xi)統(tong)(tong)有(you)三(san)類(lei):機(ji)(ji)械(xie)調(diao)速(su)(su)(su)系(xi)統(tong)(tong):固定油(you)(you)門(men)大小,發(fa)動機(ji)(ji)噴(pen)(pen)油(you)(you)量(liang)一(yi)定,轉速(su)(su)(su)在空載(zai)時(shi)較(jiao)高,隨著負(fu)載(zai)增加,轉速(su)(su)(su)降低;電(dian)(dian)(dian)子調(diao)速(su)(su)(su)系(xi)統(tong)(tong):由轉速(su)(su)(su)傳(chuan)感器,執行(xing)(xing)器,調(diao)速(su)(su)(su)板等主要部(bu)件(jian)組成一(yi)個負(fu)反饋系(xi)統(tong)(tong),油(you)(you)門(men)會隨負(fu)載(zai)變(bian)化(hua)而改變(bian)噴(pen)(pen)油(you)(you)量(liang),轉速(su)(su)(su)不(bu)會隨負(fu)載(zai)變(bian)化(hua)而變(bian)化(hua),發(fa)電(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)(ji)頻率不(bu)會改變(bian)。這種(zhong)調(diao)速(su)(su)(su)系(xi)統(tong)(tong)國(guo)內運(yun)用(yong)較(jiao)多;電(dian)(dian)(dian)噴(pen)(pen)調(diao)速(su)(su)(su)系(xi)統(tong)(tong):電(dian)(dian)(dian)噴(pen)(pen)柴(chai)油(you)(you)噴(pen)(pen)射(she)系(xi)統(tong)(tong)由傳(chuan)感器、ECU(計算機(ji)(ji))和執行(xing)(xing)機(ji)(ji)構(gou)三(san)部(bu)分組成.其任務(wu)是對噴(pen)(pen)油(you)(you)系(xi)統(tong)(tong)進(jin)行(xing)(xing)電(dian)(dian)(dian)子控(kong)制,實現(xian)對噴(pen)(pen)油(you)(you)量(liang)以及噴(pen)(pen)油(you)(you)定時(shi)隨運(yun)行(xing)(xing)工況的(de)實時(shi)控(kong)制.采 用(yong)轉速(su)(su)(su)、噴(pen)(pen)油(you)(you)時(shi)刻、進(jin)氣溫度(du)、進(jin)氣壓(ya)力、燃油(you)(you)溫度(du)、冷卻水溫度(du)等傳(chuan)感器,將(jiang)實時(shi)檢測(ce)的(de)參(can)(can)數同(tong)時(shi)輸入計算機(ji)(ji)(ECU),與已儲存的(de)設定參(can)(can)數值(zhi)或(huo)參(can)(can)數圖(tu)譜(pu) (MAP圖(tu))進(jin)行(xing)(xing)比較(jiao),經(jing)過處理計算按照較(jiao)佳值(zhi)或(huo)計算后的(de)目標值(zhi)把指(zhi)令(ling)送到(dao)執行(xing)(xing)器.執行(xing)(xing)器根據ECU指(zhi)令(ling)控(kong)制噴(pen)(pen)油(you)(you)量(liang)(電(dian)(dian)(dian)磁閥關閉持續時(shi)間)和噴(pen)(pen)油(you)(you)正時(shi)(正 時(shi)控(kong)制閥開(kai)閉或(huo)電(dian)(dian)(dian)磁閥關閉始點),同(tong)時(shi)對廢氣再循環閥、預熱塞等執行(xing)(xing)機(ji)(ji)構(gou)進(jin)行(xing)(xing)控(kong)制,使柴(chai)油(you)(you)機(ji)(ji)運(yun)行(xing)(xing)狀態(tai)達到(dao)較(jiao)佳。

啟動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)系(xi)統,柴油(you)機(ji)由靜止(zhi)狀(zhuang)(zhuang)態到運行狀(zhuang)(zhuang)態的(de)(de)過程稱(cheng)為起(qi)(qi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong),完成起(qi)(qi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)過程所需的(de)(de)一系(xi)列裝置稱(cheng)為起(qi)(qi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)系(xi)統。起(qi)(qi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)系(xi)統的(de)(de)作(zuo)用是提(ti)供(gong)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)力,驅動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)曲軸旋轉,實現柴油(you)機(ji)的(de)(de)起(qi)(qi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)運行。起(qi)(qi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)方(fang)式可分為:人力起(qi)(qi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong),電(dian)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)機(ji)起(qi)(qi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)和(he)壓縮空氣起(qi)(qi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)。組成:起(qi)(qi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)機(ji)、蓄電(dian)池、電(dian)機(ji)控制機(ji)構(gou)、減壓機(ji)構(gou)、預熱裝置等(deng)。

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